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Dr. Federico Focher


  1. Clotti Stefano, Colonna Francesco Paolo, Garbesi Annamaria, Spadari Silvio, FOCHER Federico, Ciarrocchi Giovanni, Arcamone Federico. "L-2'-deossiuridine e composizioni farmaceu-tiche che le contengono". (1990). Brevetto depositato in Italia il 13/11/1990 al n°22032A/90. Titolari: CNR (70%) & A. Menarini Ind. Farmaceutiche Riunite, s.r.l. (30%).
    G. E. Wright, J. J. Gambino, A. Manikowski, S. Spadari and F. FOCHER. "Aminoalkylpurine Antiherpes Compounds" (2003). Titolari: CNR & University of Massachusetts Medical School



  1. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, La Venere Fisica, a cura di Federico Focher. Ibis, 110 pp., Pavia, 2003.
  2. Federico Focher.
    L'uomo che getto' nel panico Darwin – La vita e le scoperte di Alfred Russel Wallace, Bollati Boringhieri, 240 pp., Torino, 2006.
  3. Federico Focher
    Alexander von Humboldt. Schizzo biografico "dal vivo", Il Prato, pp. 408, Padova, 2009.
  4. Federico Focher.
    Due atei, un prete e un agnostico. Pranzo a casa Darwin, Il Prato, Padova (2012).
  5. Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, Lettere filosofiche e scientifiche. Lettera sul progresso delle scienze, a cura di Federico Focher, Pavia University Press, Pavia (2014).

Book Chapters


  1. Mazzarello P., Spadari S. e FOCHER F.
    Genetica molecolare delle malattie nervose. In: "Neurologia" di P. Pinelli e M. Poloni. Editrice Ambrosiana Milano (1993)
  2. FOCHER F., Malaspina A., Spadari S., Mazzarello P.
    Neurogenetica: approccio biomolecolare allo studio delle malattie nervose. In: "Neurologia. Principi di diagnostica e terapia" di P. Pinelli e M. Poloni. CEA Milano (2003).

Papers in Peer-Reviewed Journals


  1. Pedrali-Noy G., Mazza G., FOCHER F. and Spadari S. Lack of mutagenicity and metabolic inactivation of aphidicolin by rat liver microsomes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 93: 1054-1063 (1980).
  2. Pedrali-Noy G., Kuenzle C.C., FOCHER F., Belvedere M. and Spadari S. An enzymatic method for microdetermination of aphidicolin, a promising anti-cancer drug. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 4: 113-121 (1981).
  3. Spadari S., FOCHER F., Belvedere M., Pedrali-Noy G., Kuenzle C.C., Geuskens M. and Hardt N. The inhibition of cellular and viral replicative DNA polymerases by aphidicolin is the basis of its anticancer and antiviral activity. In "Antiviral chemotherapy: Design of inhibitors of viral functions", Ed. Gauri K.K., Academic Press, New York pp. 123-138 (1981).
  4. Hardt N., Pedrali-Noy G., FOCHER F. and Spadari S. Aphidicolin does not inhibit DNA repair synthesis in UV-irradiated cells: an autoradiographic study. Biochem. J. 199: 453-456 (1981).
  5. Pedrali-Noy G., Belvedere M., Crepaldi T., FOCHER F. and Spadari S. Inhibition of DNA replication and growth of several human and murine neoplastic cells by aphidicolin without detectable effect upon the synthesis of immunoglobulins and HLA antigens. Cancer Res. 42: 3810-3813 (1982).
  6. Sangalli S., Rebuzzini A., Spadari S., Pedrali-Noy G., FOCHER F. and Ciarrocchi G. Methylation of UV-irradiated and chemically modified DNAs. Medicine Biologie Environment 12: 527-530 (1984).
  7. Spadari S., FOCHER F., Kuenzle C., Corey E.J., Myers A.G., Hardt N., Rebuzzini A., Ciarrocchi G. and Pedrali-Noy G. In vivo distribution and activity of aphidicolin on dividing and quiescent cells. Antiviral Res. 5: 93-101 (1985).
  8. Spadari S., FOCHER F., Sala F., Ciarrocchi G., Koch G., Falaschi A. and Pedrali-Noy G. Control of cell division by aphidicolin without adverse effects upon resting cells. Arzneimittelforschung. 35: 1108-1116 (1985).
  9. Spadari S., Pedrali-Noy G., FOCHER F., Ventrella G., Arcamone F., Giuliani F. and Ciarrocchi G. DNA polymerases and DNA topoisomerases as targets for the development of anticancer drugs. Anticancer Research 6: 935-941 (1986).
  10. Spadari S., FOCHER F., Sangalli S. and Hubscher U. The effect of drugs on mitochondrial DNA synthesis can be tested in isolated synaptosomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: 9523-9524 (1986).
  11. Spadari S., Sutherland B., Pedrali-Noy G. FOCHER F., Chiesa M.T. and Ciarrocchi G. Alteration of DNA tertiary structure by physical and chemical carcinogens: involvement in DNA repair processes. Toxicologic Pathology 15: 82-87 (1987).
  12. FOCHER F., Ferrari E., Spadari S. and Hubscher U. Do DNA polymerase delta and alpha act coordinately as leading and lagging strand replicases? FEBS Letters 229: 6-10 (1988).
  13. FOCHER F., Hildebrand C., Freese S., Ciarrocchi G., Noonan T., Sangalli S., Brown N.C., Spadari S. and Wright G. N2-phenyldeoxyguanosine: a novel selective inhibitor of Herpes symplex thymidine kinase. J. Med. Chem. 31: 1496-1500 (1988).
  14. Montecucco A., Spadari S., FOCHER F., Pedrali-Noy G., Palu' G. and Ciarrocchi G. Detection of the effects of intercalating and non-intercalating drugs on DNA structure. Biochemical Pharmacology 37: 1853-1855 (1988).
  15. FOCHER F., Sangalli S., Ciarrocchi G., Della Valle G., Talarico D., Rebuzzini A., Wright G., Brown N.C. and Spadari S. N2-substituted guanine derivatives act as selective non-substrate inhibitors of Herpes symplex 1 thymidine kinase. Biochemical Pharmacology 37: 1877-78 (1988).
  16. FOCHER F., Spadari S., Ginelli B., Hottiger M., Gassmann M. and Hubscher U. Calf thymus DNA polymerase delta: purification, biochemical and functional properties of the enzyme after its separation from DNA polymerase alpha, a DNA dependent ATPase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Nucleic Acids Res. 16: 6279-6295 (1988).
  17. Spadari S., FOCHER F. and Hubscher U. Developmental activity profile of DNA polymerases alpha and delta in rat neurons suggests a coordinated in vivo function. In vivo 2: 317-320 (1988).
  18. Gassmann M., FOCHER F., Buhk H-J., Ferrari E., Spadari S. and Hubscher U. Replication of single-stranded porcine virus DNA by calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha and delta. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 951: 280-289 (1988).
  19. FOCHER F., Sangalli S., Ciarrocchi G., Pedrali-Noy G., Sandoli D., Rebuzzini A., Wright G., Brown N.C. and Spadari S. A novel pharmacological approach to Herpes virus infections. J. Chemotherapy 1: 1107-1108 (1989).
  20. FOCHER F., Gassmann M., Hafkemeyer P., Ferrari E., Spadari S. and Hubscher U. Calf thymus DNA polymerase delta independent of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 1805-1821 (1989).
  21. Spadari S., Montecucco A., Pedrali-Noy G., Ciarrocchi G., FOCHER F. and Hubscher U. A double loop model for the replication of eukaryotic DNA. Mutation Res. 219: 147-156 (1989).
  22. FOCHER F., Sandoli D., Hildebrand C., Sangalli S., Ciarrocchi G., Rebuzzini A., Pedrali-Noy G.,Manservigi R., Wright G., Brown N. and Spadari S. Nucleoside analogs as non-substrate inhibitors of Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinases. Methods and Findings in Exp. Clin. Pharmacology 11: 577-582 (1989).
  23. Hildebrand C., Sandoli D., FOCHER F., Gambino J., Ciarrocchi G., Spadari S. and Wright G. Structure-activity relationships of N2-substituted guanines as inhibitors of HSVI and HSV2 thymidine kinases. J. Med. Chem., 33, 203-206. (1990)
  24. Talanian R., FOCHER F., Brown N.C., Hubscher U., Khan N. and Wright G. DNA polymerase delta: a target for selective inhibitor design. In: Molecular aspects of chemotherapy (Eds: E. Borowski and D. Shugar) Pergamon Press, New York. pp.105-118. (1990).
  25. FOCHER F., Mazzarello P., Verri A., Hubscher U. and Spadari S. Activity profiles of enzymes that control the uracil incorporation into DNA during neuronal development. Mutation Res., 237, 65-73 (1990)
  26. Mazzarello P., FOCHER F., Verri A. and Spadari S. Misincorporation of uracil into DNA as possible contributor to aging and abiotropy of nerve cells. Internat. J. Neuroscience, 50, 169-174 (1990).
  27. FOCHER F., Verri A., Maga G., Spadari S. and Hubscher U. Effect of divalent and monovalent cations on calf thymus PCNA independent DNA polymerase delta and its 3'->5' exonuclease. FEBS Letters, 259, 349-352 (1990)
  28. Verri A., Mazzarello P., Biamonti G., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. The specific binding of nuclear protein(s) to the cAMP Responsive Element (CRE) sequence (TGACGTCA) is reduced by the misincorporation of U and increased by the deamination of C. Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 5775-5780 (1990)
  29. Montecucco A., Fontana M., FOCHER F., Lestingi M., Spadari S. and Ciarrocchi G. Spacific inhibition of human DNA ligase adenylation by a distamycin derivative with antitumor activity. Nucl. Acids Res. 19, 1067- 1072 (1991)
  30. Hafkemeyer P., Neftel K., Hobi R., Pfaltz A., Lutz H., Luthi K., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Hubscher U. HPO.35, a cephalosporin degradation product is a specific inhibitor of lentivirus RNases H. Nucl. Acids Res. 19, 4059-4065. (1991)
  31. FOCHER F., Mazzarello P., Verri A., Biamonti G. and Spadari S. Enzymatic and DNA/protein interaction studies indicate that uracil in neuronal DNA could contribute to nerve cell aging. In: "Biology of Aging" (Ed. R. Zwilling and C. Balduini); Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. Germany. pp. 9- 16 (1992)
  32. Verri A., Verzeletti S., Mazzarello P., Spadari S., Negri M., Bunone G., Della Valle G., Hubscher U. and FOCHER F. DNA synthesis enzymes and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in normal and neoplastic nerve cells. Anticancer Res. 12, 1099-1106 (1992)
  33. Gambino J., FOCHER F., Hildebrand C. , Maga, G., Noonan T., Spadari S. and Wright G. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships of N2-phenylguanines as inhibitors of Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases. J. Med. Chem. 35, 2979-2983 (1992)
  34. Mazzarello P., Poloni M., Spadari S and FOCHER F. DNA repair mechanisms in neurological diseases: facts and hypotheses. J. Neurol. Sciences,112, 4-14 (1992)
  35. Verri A., Mazzarello P., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. Uracil-DNA glycosylases preferentially excise mispaired uracil. Biochem. J., 287, 1007-1010 (1992)
  36. Spadari S., Maga G., FOCHER F., Ciarrocchi G., Manservigi R., Arcamone F., Capobianco M., Carcuro A., Colonna F., Iotti S. and Garbesi A. L-thymidine is phosporylated by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 thymidine kinase and inhibits viral growth. J. Med. Chem. 35, 4214-4220 (1992)
  37. FOCHER F., Verri A., Verzeletti S., Mazzarello P., Spadari S. Uracil in the origin of replication of Herpes simplex 1 alters the specific interaction with the origin binding protein: does viral uracil-DNA glycosylase play a key role in viral reactivation and replication? Chromosoma, 102, S67-S71 (1992)
  38. Montecucco A., Biamonti G., Savini E., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Ciarrocchi G. DNA ligase I gene expression during differentiation and cell proliferation. Nucl. Acids Res., 20, 6209-6214 (1992
  39. Mazzarello P., Verri A., Mondello C., Colombo S., Maga G., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. Enzymes of DNA metabolism in a patient affected by Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch progeroid syndrome. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, 663, 440-441 (1992).
  40. FOCHER F., Verri A., Spadari S., Manservigi R., Gambino J. and Wright G. Herpes simplex virus type 1 uracil-DNA glycosylase: isolation and selective inhibition by novel uracil derivatives. Biochem. J. 292, 883-889 (1993)
  41. Maga G., Verri A., Ponti W., Bonizzi L., Poli G., Garbesi A., Niccolai D., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. Lack of stereospecificity of Suid Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) thymidine kinase. Biochem. J. 294, 381-385 (1993)
  42. Piccolo, G., FOCHER F., Verri A., Spadari S., Banfi P., Gerosa E. and Mazzarello P. Myoclonus Epilepsy and Ragged-Red Fibers: blood mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in affected and asymptomatic members of a family. Acta Neurol. Scandinav. 88, 406-409 (1993)
  43. Maga G., Spadari S., Wright G. and FOCHER F. Identification, partial purification and inhibition by guanine analogues of a novel enzymatic activity which phosphorylates guanosine to GMP in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella. Biochem. J. 298, 289-294 (1994)
  44. Botta M., Saladino R., Gentile G., Summa V., Nicoletti R., Verri A., FOCHER F. and Spadari S. Researches on antiviral agents. 4. Studies on the chemistry of 6-methyl-2-methoxy-O-acyloxy and 6- methyl-2,4-di-O-acyloxypyrimidine derivatives as new acylation reagents and inhibitors of uraci-DNA glycosylases. Tetrahedron 50, 3603-3618 (1994)
  45. Wright G. E., Hubscher U., Khan N. N., FOCHER F., Verri A. Inhibitor analysis of calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon. FEBS Lett. 341, 128-130 (1994)
  46. Maga G., FOCHER F., Wright G., Capobianco, M., Garbesi A. Bendiscioli A. and Spadari S. Kinetic studies with N2-phenylguanines and with L-thymidine indicate that Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine and thymidylate kinases share a common active site. Biochem. J. 302, 279-282 (1994)
  47. Verri A., Maga G., Spadari S., Bonizzi L., Ponti W., Strosselli S., Rocchi M, Poli G. and FOCHER F. Aphidicolin inhibits in vitro the activity of Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) DNA Polymerase and in vivo the viral proliferation. InVivo 8, 1041-1046 (1994)
  48. Xu H., Maga G., FOCHER F., Smith E. R., Spadari S., Gambino J. and Wright G. E. Synthesis, properties, and pharmacokinetic studies on N2-phenylguanine derivatives as inhibitors of Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases. J. Med. Chem. 38, 49-57 (1995)
  49. Spadari S., Ciarrocchi G., FOCHER F., Verri A., Maga G., Arcamone F., Iafrate E., Manzini S., Garbesi A. Tondelli L. 5-Iodo-2'-deoxy-L-Uridine (L-IdU) and (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)2'-deoxy-L-Uridine (L-BVdU): selective phosphorylation by Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase, antiherpetic activity and cytotoxicity studies. Mol. Pharmacol. 47, 1231-1238 (1995)
  50. Montecucco A., Savini E., Biamonti G., Stefanini M., FOCHER F. and Ciarrocchi G. Late induction of human DNA ligase I after UV-C irradiation. Nucl. Acids Res. 23, 962-966 (1995)
  51. Argnani R., FOCHER F., Verri A., Zucchini S., Spadari S., Wright G. E. and Manservigi R. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) uracil-DNA glycosylase: functional expression in Escherichia coli, biochemical characterization, and selective inhibition by 6-(p-n-octylanilino)uracil. Virology, 211, 307-311 (1995)
  52. 52. FOCHER F., Maga G., Bendiscioli A., Garbesi A., Capobianco M., and Spadari S. Stereospecificity of human DNA polymerases alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon, HIV reverse transcriptase, HSV-1 DNA polymerase, calf thymus terminal transferase and E. coli DNA polymerase I in recognizing D- and L-nucleoside 5'-triphosphate as substrates. Nucl. Acids Res. 23, 2840-2847 (1995)
  53. Argnani R., Zucchini S., FOCHER F., Verri A., Spadari S. and Manservigi R. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) uracil-DNA glycosylase: cloning and characterization. Minerva Biotec. 7, 116-119 (1995)
  54. Spadari S., Maga G., Verri A., Bendiscioli A., Tondelli L., Capobianco M. Colonna F., Garbesi A. and FOCHER F. Lack of stereospecificity of cellular and viral enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides and DNA: molecular basis for the antiviral activity of unnatural L-b-nucleosides. Biochimie, 77, 861-867 (1995)
  55. Janson J., Stattel J., Verri A., Gambino J., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Wright G. N2-(p-n-octylphanyl)dGTP: synthesis and inhibitory activity against DNA polymerases. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 15, 669-682 (1996)
  56. Gebhardt B. M., Wright G. E., Xu H., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Kaufman H. E. 9-(4-Hydroxybutyl)-N2-phenyl-guanine, HBPG, a thymidine kinase inhibitor, suppresses Herpes virus reactivation in mice. Antiviral Res. 30, 87-94 (1996)
  57. Turriziani O., Antonelli G., FOCHER F., Bambacioni F. and Dianzani F. Further study of the mechanism underlying the cellular resistance to AZT. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 228, 797-801 (1996)
  58. Verri A., FOCHER F., Priori G., Gosselin G., Imbach J.-L., Capobianco M., Garbesi A. and Spadari S. Lack of enantiospecificity of human deoxycytidine kinase. Relevance for the activation of beta-L-deoxycytidine analogs as antineoplastic and antiviral drugs. Mol. Pharmacol. 51, 132-138 (1997)
  59. Verri A., Priori G., Spadari S., Tondelli L. and FOCHER F. Relaxed enantioselectivity of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase and chemotherapeutic uses of L-nucleoside analogues. Biochem. J. 328, 317-320 (1997)
  60. Wright G., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Sun H. Inhibitors of herpes simplex thymidine kinases. Drugs of the Future 22, 531-537 (1997)
  61. Basnak I., Sun M, Hamor T. A., FOCHER F., Verri A., Spadari S., Wroblowski B., Herdewijn P. and Walker R. T. Some 6-aza-5-substituted-2'-deoxyuridines show potent and selective inhibition of Herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 17, 17-206 (1998)
  62. Strosselli S., Spadari S. Walker, R. T. Basnak I. and FOCHER F. Trichomonas vaginalis thymidine kinase. Purification, characterization and search for inhibitors. Biochem. J. 334, 15-22 (1998)
  63. Spadari S., Maga G., Verri A. and FOCHER F. Molecular basis for the antiviral and anticancer activities of unnatural beta-L-nucleosides. Exp.Opin. Invest. Drugs 7, 1285-1300 (1998)
  64. Verri A., Montecucco A., Gosselin G., Boudou V., Imbach J.-L., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. L-ATP is recognised by some cellular and viral enzymes: does the chance drive enzymic enantioselectivity? Biochem. J. 337, 585-590 (1999)
  65. Sun H., Zhi C., Wright G. E., Ubiali D., Pregnolato M., Verri A., FOCHER F., and Spadari S. Molecular modelling and synthesis of inhibitors of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 uracil-DNA glycosylase. J. Med. Chem. 42, 2344-2350 (1999)
  66. Verri A., Montecucco A., Gosselin G., Boudou V., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. Interaction of beta-L-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (L-ATP) with human deoxycytidine kinase, human DNA primase and T4 DNA ligase: does the chance direct enzymatic enantioselectivity? Nucleosides & Nucleotides 18(4-5):867-869 (1999)
  67. Pregnolato M., Ubiali D., Verri A., FOCHER F., Spadari S., Sun H., Zhi C. and Wright G.E. Synthesis and molecular modeling of novel HSV1 uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitors. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 18(4-5),709-711 (1999)
  68. FOCHER F. Ubiali D., Pregnolato M., Zhi C., Gambino J., Wright G. E., and Spadari S. Novel non-substrate inhibitors of human thymidine phosphorylase: prospect for the control of tumor-dependent angiogenesis. J. Med. Chem. 43, 2601-2607 (2000)
  69. Verri A., FOCHER F., Duncombe R. J., Basnak I., Walker R. T., Coe P. L., De Clercq E., Andrei G., Snoeck R., Balzarini J. and Spadari S. Anti-(herpes simplex virus) activity of 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines: a biochemical investigation for viral and cellular target enzymes. Biochem. J. 351, 319-326 (2000)
  70. Salvetti R., Marchand A., Pregnolato M., Verri A., Spadari S., FOCHER F., Briant M, Sommadossi J.-P., Mathe' C. and Gosselin G. 5-(trifluoromethyl)-b-2'-deoxyuridine, the L-enantiomer of trifluorothymidine: stereospecific synthesis and antiherpetic evaluation. Bioorg. Med. Chem 9, 1731-1738 (2001)
  71. FOCHER F. and Spadari S. Thymidine phosphorylase: a two-face Janus in anticancer chemotherapy. Current Cancer Drug Targets 1, 141-153 (2001)
  72. FOCHER F. The control of cultural evolution has been tried, what's next? BioEssays 23, 761 (2001)
  73. Salvetti R., Pregnolato M., Verri A., FOCHER F., Spadari S., Marchand A., Mathe' C. and Gosselin G. Synthesis and in vitro activity of D- and L-enantiomers of 5-(trifluoromethyl)uracil nucleoside derivatives. Nucleosides. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids 20, 1123-1125 (2001)
  74. FOCHER F. "Programmed death" in Schopenhauer's World? Apoptosis 7, 285 (2002)
  75. Turriziani O., Schuetz J. D., FOCHER F., Scagnolari C., Sampath J., Adachi M., Bambacioni F., Riva E., Antonelli G. Impaired 2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine accumulation in CEM lymphoblastoid cells as a mechanism of acquired resistance independent of MRP4 with a possible role for ABCC11. Biochem. J. 268, 325-332 (2002)
  76. Turriziani O., Scagnolari C., Bambacioni F., Bellomi F., FOCHER F., Gentile M. and Antonelli G. Selection of a T-cell line resistant to stavudine and zidovudine by prolonged treatment with stavudine. Antiv. Ther. 7, 105-111 (2002)
  77. Mugnaini C., Botta M., Coletta M., Corelli F., FOCHER F., Marini S., M. L. Renzulli M. L. and Verri A. Research on L-Nucleosides. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Series of L- and D-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-[Tris(methylthio)methyl]-b-Pentofuranosyl Nucleosides. Bioorg. Med. Chem 11, 357-366 (2003)
  78. FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Maga G. Antivirals at the mirror: the lack of stereospecificity of some viral and human enzymes offers novel opportunities in antiviral drug development. Current Drug Targets Infectious Disorders 3, 41-53 (2003)
  79. Manfredini S., Solaroli N., Angusti A., Nalin F., Durini E., Vertuani S., Pricl S., Ferrone, M., Spadari S., FOCHER F., Verri A., De Clercq E. and Balzarini J. Design and synthesis of phosphonacetic acid (PPA) ester and amide bioisosters of ribofuranosylnucleoside diphosphates as potential ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors and evaluation of their enzyme inhibitory, cytostatic and antiviral activity. Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 14, 183-194 (2003)
  80. Magrassi L., Finocchiaro G., Milanesi G., Benvenuto F., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. L-thymidine allows safe imaging of gene delivery to the brain and other organs. Gene Ther. 10, 2052-2058 (2003)
  81. Turriziani O., Scagnolari C., Bellomi F., Solimeo, I., FOCHER F. and Antonelli G. Cellular issues relating to the resistance of HIV to antiretroviral agents. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 106, 45-48 (2003)
  82. Roy B., Verri A., Lossani A., Spadari S., FOCHER F., Mathe' C., Gosselin G., Aubertin A.M., Lepoivre M. and Périgaud C. The enantioselectivity of ribonucleotide reductase: a first study using stereoisomers of pyrimidine 2'-azido-2'-deoxynucleosides. Biochem. Pharmacol. 68, 711-718 (2004)
  83. Corelli F., Botta M., Lossani A., Pasquini S., Spadari S. and FOCHER F. Microwave-assisted synthesis and biological evaluation of novel uracil derivatives inhibiting human thymidine phosphorylase. Il Farmaco 59, 987-992 (2004)
  84. Manikowski, A, Verri A., Lossani A., Gebhardt B., Gambino J., FOCHER F., Spadari S. and Wright G. E., Inhibition of Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases by 9-substituted-N2-phenylguanines and related compounds: Structure-Activity Relationships and antiherpetic activity in vivo. J. Med. Chem. 48, 3919-3929 (2005)
  85. Verri A., FOCHER F., Tettamanti G. and Grazioli, V., Fast two-steps genetic screening of thrombophilia by Pyrosequencing. Clin. Chem. 51, 1282-1284 (2005)
  86. Turriziani O., Pagnotti P., Pierangeli A., FOCHER F., Baranello C., Bellomi F., Schuetz J. and Antonelli G., The effects of prolonged treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine and abacavir on a T-lymphoblastoid cell line. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22, 960-967 (2006).
  87. Semeraro T., Lossani A., Botta M., Chiara C., Alvarez R., Manetti F., Mugnaini C.,Valensin S., FOCHER F. and Corelli F. Simplified Analogs of Immucillin-G Retain Potent Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Inhibitory Activity. J. Med. Chem. 49,  6037-6045 (2006).
  88. FOCHER F., Lossani A, Verri A, Spadari S, Maioli A, Gambino JJ, Wright GE, Eberle R, Black DH, Medveczky P, Medveczky M, Shugar D. Sensitivity of monkey B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) to antiviral drugs: role of thymidine kinase in antiviral activities of substrate analogs and acyclonucleosides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Jun;51(6):2028-
  89. Lossani A, Torti A, Gatti S, Bruno A, Maserati R, Wright GE, FOCHER F.Thymidine kinase and uridine-cytidine kinase from Entamoeba histolytica: cloning, characterization, and search for specific inhibitors. Parasitology. 2009 May;136(6):595-602.
  90. Gebhardt BM, FOCHER F., Eberle R, Manikowski A, Wright GE. Effect of combinations of antiviral drugs on herpes simplex encephalitis. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2009 Dec 29;3:289-94
  91. Butini S, Gemma S, Brindisi M, Borrelli G, Lossani A, Ponte AM, Torti A, Maga G, Marinelli L, La Pietra V, Fiorini I, Lamponi S, Campiani G, Zisterer DM, Nathwani SM, Sartini S, La Motta C, Da Settimo F, Novellino E, FOCHER F. Non-nucleoside inhibitors of human adenosine kinase: synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological studies. J Med Chem. 2011 Mar 10;54(5):1401-20.
  92. Butini S, Gemma S, Brindisi M, Borrelli G, Fiorini I, Samuele A, Karytinos A, Facchini M, Lossani A, Zanoli S, Campiani G, Novellino E, FOCHER F., Maga G. Enantioselective binding of second generation pyrrolobenzoxazepinones to the catalytic ternary complex of HIV-1 RT wild-type and L100I and K103N drug resistant mutants. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jul 1;21(13):3935-8.
  93. Lossani A, Savi L, Manikowski A, Maioli A, Gambino J, FOCHER F., Spadari S, Wright GE. N(2)-Phenyl-9-(hydroxyalkyl)guanines and related compounds are substrates for Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases. J Mol Biochem. 2012;1(1):21-25.
  94. Torti A, Lossani A, Savi L, FOCHER F, Wright GE, Brown NC, Xu WC. Clostridium difficile DNA polymerase IIIC: basis for activity of antibacterial compounds. Curr Enzym Inhib. 2011 Oct;7(3):147-153.
  95. Chiodi I, Belgiovine C, Zongaro S, Ricotti R, Horard B, Lossani A, FOCHER F, Gilson E, Giulotto E, Mondello C. Super-telomeres in transformed human fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug;1833(8):1885-93.
  96. FOCHER F. Maupertuis: the 'old synthesis'. J Genet. 2014 Aug;93(2):607-8.
  97. Savi L, Brindisi M, Alfano G, Butini S, La Pietra V, Novellino E, Marinelli L, Lossani A, FOCHER F, Cavella C, Campiani G, Gemma S. Site-directed Mutagenesis of Key Residues Unveiled a Novel Allosteric Site on Human Adenosine Kinase for Pyrrolobenzoxa(thia)zepinone Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2015 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  98. Yanachkova M, Xu WC, Dvoskin S, Dix EJ, Yanachkov IB, FOCHER F, Savi L, Sanchez MD, Foster TP, Wright GE. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2015 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print] 

Essays, Reviews and Book reviews in Italian Journals and Annals


  1. Pedrali-Noy G., FOCHER F., Sala F., Ciarrocchi G., Sala C., Rebuzzini A., Falaschi A. e Spadari S. Afidicolina: un nuovo strumento per il controllo della proliferazione cellulare. Elettromedicali (V) 10: 24-36 (1985).
  2. FOCHER F., Ciarrocchi G. e Spadari S. Aspetti biochimici della terapia antivirale. Elettromedicali VI: 5-12 (1986).
  3. FOCHER F. e Spadari S. Nuove strategie nello sviluppo di farmaci antivirali. Biotec 6, 32-36 (1991).
  4. FOCHER F. Di nuovo a casa nell'universo (in margine ad un libro recente). La Scuola classica di Cremona, 1998. pp 122-132.
  5. FOCHER F. Evoluzione, progresso e responsabilita'. La Scuola classica di Cremona, 1999. pp 141-150
  6. FOCHER F. Golgi, un positivista stregato dalla complessita'. Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 2000, 93, 389-392
  7. FOCHER F. La biologia necessita di una nuova filosofia della scienza? La Scuola classica di Cremona, 2000. pp 214-225.
  8. FOCHER F. La biologia non ha bisogno di rivoluzioni. Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 2001, 94, 28-32
  9. FOCHER F. Il controllo dell'evoluzione biologica umana: considerazioni alle soglie di una rivoluzione non solo scientifica. La Scuola classica di Cremona, 2001. pp 193-200.
  10. FOCHER F. Darwin in Italia: Giovanni Canestrini. Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 2001, 94, 399-400
  11. FOCHER F. Scienze della vita fra Accademia e boudoir: la "Venere fisica" di Maupertuis. La Scuola classica di Cremona, 2003, pp.153-166
  12. FOCHER F. L'evoluzione del pensiero biogeografico di Wallace. Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 2004, 97, 373-375
  13. FOCHER F. L'uomo e' morto, viva l'uomo! Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 2005, 98, 210-212.
  14. FOCHER F. Evoluzionismo darwiniano: il braccio violento della "Volonta'". Rivista del laboratorio dell'ISPF, 2006, III, (2) pp. 14-19.
  15. FOCHER F. Beethoven, Schopenhauer, Humboldt, ovvero l'unita' dell'essere nell'intuizione artistica, nella speculazione filosofica e nella ricerca scientifica. La Scuola classica di Cremona, 2006, pp. 140-145.

Newspaper Articles


  1. Qualcuno vuole "comprare" lo Stelvio. La Provincia di Cremona, 25 marzo 1976
  2. Cattiva acustica. La Provincia di Cremona, 13 aprile 1976
  3. I "solisti" della Scala e i Brandeburghesi di Bach. La Provincia di Cremona, 4 maggio 1976
  4. Il concerto di "Musica Insieme" in S. Maria della Pieta'. La Provincia di Cremona, 11 maggio 1976
  5. Successo al Ponchielli dei Concerti Brandeburghesi. La Provincia di Cremona, 9 giugno 1976
  6. Musica moderna in S. Maria della Pieta'. La Provincia di Cremona, 11 giugno 1976
  7. Il nuovo organo inaugurato a Borgo Loreto. La Provincia di Cremona, 19 ottobre 1976
  8. Un bel concerto del Manin al Fodri. La Provincia di Cremona, 27 marzo 1977
  9. E' solo "volonta' del mondo". Una lettura schopenaueriana del "Don Giovanni" di Mozart. Mondo Padano, 7 novembre 1998
  10. Catastrofi naturali: alzare la 'soglia critica' anche perche' il pericolo non sara' mai eliminabile. Mondo Padano, 3 aprile 1999
  11. Impariamo a convivere con le biotecnologie. Mondo Padano, 2 giugno 1999

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